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Credit(s): PDHs: 4.0, ASHA CEUs*: 0.4
Summary: The first two articles in this SIG 19 activity provide information to better our assessment and treatment of individuals in the area of voice, while the latter two articles focus on treatment of individuals in the area of speech production. The authors for all four articles present a review of the literature as well as challenges and future directions. First, Van Hook and Duffy conducted a pilot study to trial the Gender Spectrum Voice Inventory. This article provides a review, discussion of validity, and speech-language pathologists’ perceptions of the inventory in an effort to address a gap in available clinical tools for transgender and nonbinary people. Next, Hammer reviews the relationship between air flow with sound pressure level during syllable production while holding fundamental frequency and subglottic air pressure constant. The results have clinical implications that stress the importance of an increase in air flow and focus on vocal fold contact. Then, Gritsyk et al. describe their study to determine which measures of somatosensory acuity best predicted change in production accuracy during vowel learning tasks while controlling auditory acuity. Results indicate only bite block adaptation with auditory masking was significantly associated with performance. Finally, Zajac et al. discuss their preliminary study that indicated cleft type contributes to production errors, specifically backing, in children with repaired cleft palate. Additionally, a history of otitis media affects the spectral contrast of alveolar consonants in children without clefts.
Credit(s): PDHs: 2.0, ASHA CEUs*: 0.2
Summary: This Perspectives activity contains three articles, all with emphasis on social considerations in the elderly, with emphases on risk factors for dementia and treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. The first article seeks to describe the validity and reliability of the Fun and Social Engagement Evaluation (FUSE). The authors explain that this is an important topic because lack of physical activity and low social engagement are risk factors for dementia and could impact the rate of decline associated with dementia. Furthermore, physical inactivity has been identified by the World Health Organization as a leading risk factor for global mortality. Nursing home residents were evaluated using the FUSE during “Bingocize” sessions; the program combines a bingo-like game and physical activity and is scaled for differing cognitive and physical levels of ability. Results indicate that the FUSE is a valid and reliable method to measure engagement, and this is important because this measure can be recommended to nursing homes to measure engagement, as well as used in future research. The second article attempts to determine which of a variety of factors were associated with communicative participation and measured this based on the social network size of an individual. The author feels that this is important because social isolation is linked to cognitive decline and depression, both of which are risk factors for developing dementia. This study builds on previous research related to social participation and communication as predictors of successful health outcomes. Two research questions are addressed: What numbers of communication partners exist in the self-reported social network of older adults? And what factors are included in a model for predicting the social network size of older adults? They studied 337 seniors in Central Arkansas by collecting interviews and conducting standardized assessments. Results indicate that cognition and education are factors that are related to communicative participation. The results of this study, along with additional literature on this topic, suggest that there is benefit in recognizing a decrease in communicative participation and the role that cognitive decline may play in restricting communicative participation. The final article describes the program developed at Long Island University Brooklyn, which is multidisciplinary in nature, in contrast to previous treatment models which have traditionally focused on a monodisciplinary approach. In the past decade, there has been a shift from monodisciplinary models and research to a multidisciplinary approach, which is more effective in holistically treating the multifaceted effects of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), resulting in better outcomes and social participation for individuals with PD. The article describes use of the Fitness for PD exercise program twice per week for ten weeks, targeting strength, balance, agility, stretching, and aerobic exercises. Students at the university are engaged in taking vitals, facilitating resistance training, and enhancing safety; students and participants find benefit in working together. One hour Speech Clinic for PD sessions are conducted after each fitness class, including voice evaluations and therapy focusing on maximizing voice production and improving breathing patterns. The first half of sessions are conducted in game format, which encourages interpersonal interactions and collaboration and facilitates carryover into conversational contexts. Sessions incorporate Motor Learning Principles, LSVT LOUD, and respiratory exercises. The second half of sessions are conducted in whole-group format and speech practice in small groups.
Credit(s): PDHs: 4.0, ASHA CEUs*: 0.4
Summary: This activity presents a diverse perspective, including four different speech science articles focused on a variety of topics. Kimball and Sayce discuss the pros and cons of research using behavior and functional assessment and treatment in the areas of speech science and voice, specifically their limitation in outlining etiology or explaining treatment resistance. They also provide an overview of genetic research approaches as a possible path forward to develop additional evidence-based treatment approaches. Neel reviews the production and perception of extralinguistic information regarding sex/gender, sexual orientation, age, non-native accent, regional and social dialect, and race and ethnicity. The article explores the literature in the above areas reviewing acoustical features and common misperceptions, concluding with instructional activities to enhance student awareness of indexical characteristics. McAllister et al. studied the effects of biofeedback for residual rhotic errors in a preliminary case series. Participants were five native English speakers who had not yet generalized rhotic production. Treatment consisted of either electropalatographic or visual-acoustic biofeedback using the Challenge Point Program software. Although participant responses to treatment were variable, the median effect size tended to exceed the minimum value considered clinically significant. Gritsyk et al. examined three measures to determine which best predicted change in production accuracy during a vowel learning task. Using 20 female college students, researchers administered three tasks: an oral stereognosis task, a bite block task using auditory making, and a new phonetic awareness task. The bite block task with auditory masking, measuring proprioceptive awareness, was the only task significantly related to performance in speech learning.
Credit(s): PDHs: 1.5, ASHA CEUs*: 0.15
Summary: These articles explore thickened liquids for oropharyngeal dysphagia, importance of patient selection, & balancing physical welfare/quality of life (QOL); QOL in patients/caregivers in recovery for swallowing disorders; audiologist knowledge of cognitive impairment/screening in outcomes/communication; and hearing screening for individuals who are diagnosed with dementia.
Credit(s): PDHs: 1.5, ASHA CEUs*: 0.15
Summary: This course examines three progressive cultural topics as they relate to speech-language pathology and audiology: ageism among CSD graduate students; institutional, symbolic, and individual systems of oppression; and the interaction between social determinants and health disparities.